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Patrick H Pearse


(Poet, Irish Rebel, Gaelic scholar and visionary)

Patrick Pearse was born in Dublin, Ireland on November 10, 1879 to an English sculptor and an Irish woman. The couple had three children: two sons and a daughter. Patrick became interested in Ireland and its Irish history early in life. He joined the Gaelic League, a group founded to preserve the Irish language, at age 21. In order to promote the League’s cause, Patrick changed his anglicized name to the Irish version, Pádraic. Pearse quickly became known as a leader and spokesman for the Gaelic League. His beginnings in this small group would lead to his rise to power in more militant Irish republican groups.

Pádraic Pearse entered the Gaelic League a young boy looking to explore his Irish history. Within three years of joining, he was the editor of the League’s weekly newspaper: An Claidheamh Soluis (“The Sword of Light”). Pearse served as editor of the paper for six years (Britannica On Line). The title of the paper seemed to symbolize Pearse as a man in his early years of battling the British. He tried numerous ways to defeat the British intellectually. He used knowledge, not force, in attempts to liberate Ireland. Some of Pearse’s tactics included publishing old Irish tales from ancient manuscripts and also publishing his own works in Irish rather than English. In 1908, Pearse founded St. Edna’s College near Dublin. St Edna’s structured its curriculum around Irish traditions and culture. Moreover, the college taught both the Irish and English languages.

Although Pearse started out as a literary warrior, he soon found that intellect alone would not rid Ireland of the English. Pearse became involved in militant groups as both a poet and a warrior and benefited Ireland immensely in both ways.

Pearse is known best for his part in planning and executing the Easter Rising of 1916. However, he also played an important role in the advancement of Irish literature. In the late 19th century The Gaelic Revival took place in Ireland. This was a literary movement that focused on the “rich vocabulary and idiomatic expressions in the Irish language and folklore” (BOL). However, the members of this movement were challenged by the diverse dialects of the language. Moreover, there were very few modern works in the genre at the time. Most of the literature being published in Irish was the myths and legends of historical Ireland. Nothing produced early in the revival could compete internationally. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that the language was standardized. At this time, Patrick Pearse was one of the pioneer Irish writers. His poems, essays, and articles were exactly what the Irish needed. Although they were written for the sole purpose of freeing Ireland, his works gave inspiration to a younger generation of poets. He and several of his contemporaries began to write with pure emotion and passion. This was the stepping stone for Irish literature and its launch into the international realm.

When the name Patrick Pearse is mentioned, most do not think of his literary contribution to Ireland. This contribution was significant, but it is not what Pearse died for. His name is not carved in history forever because of his essays or articles. When his name is mentioned, almost all who hear it will think of the Easter Rising of 1916. This is the battle which catapulted Ireland towards freedom. It is also the battle that Pearse and the rebels lost. The battle that, shortly after it ended, Pearse and his friends were executed by firing squad. To understand the rising and why it took place, one must look at the events leading to the rising.

In 1912, thousands of protestant Ulstermen (those Irish residing in the Northeasern province of Ulster) signed the Ulster Covenant of Resistance to Home Rule (BOL). Rather than submit to Home Rule, their leaders decided that a provisional government would be established in Ulster. As tension and controversy over the issue heightened, a paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) was formed. The UVF was backed by the British military. At one point, an entire cavalry brigade of the Royal Army threatened to resign if ordered to move against the Ulster protestants (DeRosa p. 31) As the Catholics in Ulster became more organized, the protestant paramilitary groups began to attack them. Whenever Catholics would march for religious or economic equality, a riot would usually follow. These were brought on by attacks from the Ulster Volunteer Force.

As a rival to this force, the Irish Volunteers were formed in November 1913, with Pearse a member of their committee. Again, Pearse contributed poems, articles, and essays to the group’s newspaper, The Irish Volunteer. In July 1914, Pearse was made a member of the Supreme Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), a separate militant group that believed in using force to throw the British out of Ireland. The Irish Volunteers, Ulster Volunteer Force, and the IRB began to stockpile weapons. Ireland was very near a civil war when World War I erupted in Europe. At this point, the Irish Volunteers split. One group supported British efforts in the war with Germany. The other group, along with the IRB, was totally against any support for British troops. It was with this group that Pearse aligned himself.

John Redmond, a member of Parliament fighting for Home Rule, took a pro British stance during the war. This alienated many Irish citizens and support for the Brotherhood grew. Shortly before 1915, the Irish Republican Brotherhood had plans for a full military revolution in Ireland. Pearse was a believer in a revolution while the British were occupied fighting a war in Europe. He felt that the only way to liberate Ireland was for people to die. He expressed these feelings in his famous oration at the funeral of Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa in August 1915. Rossa was a member of the Sinn Féin party, which supported the use of force to free Ireland. In this oration, Pearse stated the following:

“We stand at Rossa’s grave not in sadness, but in exultation of spirit. This is a place of peace sacred to the dead, where men should speak with all charity and all restraint; but I hold it a Christian thing. to hate evil, to hate untruth, to hate oppression, and hating them to strive to overthrow them. while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree, shall never be at peace.”
(DeRosa pp.73-74)

The actual planning for the Easter Rising of 1916 began almost two years before the actual rebellion. The planning was a very complicated process headed by Pearse and a select group of men on the military council of the IRB. Sir Roger Casement, an Englishman who believed in the Irish cause, was sent to Germany in an attempt to obtain arms. Casement convinced the Germans to send some rifles but the ship arrived early and was sunk by the British Navy. One of the most difficult aspects in the planning of the rising was its secrecy. Pearse and his comrades kept the rising secret from the highest leaders in the IRB, including Eoin MacNeill, the Chief of Staff of the IRB. The leaders on the Supreme Council opposed an insurrection while the military council was secretly planning one. Pearse noted that so many Irish risings had been defeated due to informants and resistance within the Irish themselves. For this reason, only about 30 people knew about the rising until a few days before it was to take place. As it drew near, the Supreme Council and the English government found out about the planned action. The British had sunk a German ship in Irish waters and arrested Sir Roger Casement upon his return to Ireland. The Supreme Council issued a statement in the Irish papers that all manoeuvres scheduled for Easter Sunday were cancelled. Upon this notification, the British officials were confident that there would be no conflict. Down, but not defeated, Pearse and the military council met to figure out what should be done.

It was decided that the rising would be put off one day, until Easter Monday. Pearse spread word to all of the forces around the country that manoeuvres would go the next day. Although many of the volunteers were happy, several were fed up with the inconsistency and opted not to participate in the rising. It was also at this meeting that Pearse and six others signed the “Proclamation of the Republic of Ireland” written mostly by Pearse. Shortly before the signing, the six members elected Pádraic H. Pearse president of Ireland. It truly was an emotional moment for the seven men for they knew that what they were signing was also their death warrant (DeRosa p.229).

On Monday, April 24, 1916, the revolution began. Pearse and his army took control of the General Post Office in Dublin along with several other buildings in Dublin. Above the Post Office, the Union Jack of England was hauled down, and the tricolor of Ireland raised. Shortly afterwards, Pearse accompanied by his brother, Willie, read the proclamation on the front steps of the Post Office. Ireland was free. Although the British were caught completely off guard, it did not take long for them to raise a force equal to that of the ill-equipped volunteers. The rebels surprised many by holding out for an entire week. However, under heavy artillery and out of ammunition, Pearse surrendered to the British on April 30. The battle was over, but Pearse had carved his name in history forever. Moreover, the Easter Rising is seen by many as the beginning of the end of English rule in Ireland.

On May 3, 1916 Pádraic H. Pearse and fourteen others are executed by firing squad without trial for leading the insurrection in Dublin. Eamon de Valera was the only leader spared because he was half American; the English government did not want sympathy for the Irish to grow in the United States (Foster p.198) The executions created a feeling of revulsion against the British and turned the leaders, especially Pearse, into martyrs. De Valera re-established the provisional government of Ireland in 1917 (Foster pp.200-202). This government was elected by Irish members of Parliament at a meeting in Dublin called the Dáil Éireann, meaning the “Irish Assembly.” Michael Collins formed the Irish Republican Army to carry out guerilla tactics against the British army and officials (BOL). Pearse’s poetic oration at Rossa’s funeral and the reading of the proclamation became symbols for Ireland’s new government. Attempts by Britain to rule Ireland with any authority were futile until the establishment of the Irish Free State in December 1921.

Although Patrick Pearse was executed and the rising was an immediate failure, it was an overall victory. Pearse accomplished what no other Irishmen in history had done. He led a rising that was a total surprise to the British military. He permanently unnerved the British presence in most of Ireland. His actions and subsequent execution was the turning point in Irish history. Patrick Pearse did exactly what he set out to do, he gave his life for the freedom of Ireland. Pearse’s words at Rossa’s funeral still ring true to this very day, “Ireland unfree, will never be at peace” (DeRosa p. 74). The fighting and bombings continue in Northern Ireland and there is no doubt that Patrick Pearse is still in the Irish Republican Army in spirit and soul.


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Posted by Wolverhampton Interchange

A key milestone has been reached this week in the redevelopment of the railway station multi-storey car park as part of Wolverhampton’s £120 million Interchange project.

The erection of the steel framework for the extension has started, with the project still on course to be completed by Christmas.

Work started in February on extending and refurbishing the current multi-storey car park to increase its capacity from 450 to more than 800 long stay parking spaces.

The redevelopment is being carried out by Neptune Developments and Balfour Beatty on behalf of the Wolverhampton Interchange Partnership.

It will pave the way for the new state-of-the-art railway station to be built and the Metro line extension, which will include a new stop at the station.

Councillor Peter Bilson, Deputy Leader and Cabinet Member for City Assets, said: “Good progress is being made with the railway station car park.

“We have now reached an exciting part in the works, where the scale and size of the new multi-storey extension will become visible to the public.

“Ultimately, as well as encouraging more investment and boosting prosperity in the city, the Interchange will become the gateway to the city for people arriving off the national rail network, by bus or Metro.”

Steve Parry, Managing Director of Neptune Developments, added: “It is always pleasing to achieve these key construction milestones in line with the planned timescale.

“The construction of the extended car park and the new station forecourt is important as it will facilitate the construction of a new station building with much enhanced facilities for passengers and railway employees.”

The redevelopment of the car park will include cycle and motorcycle parking, short stay and passenger drop off, as well as a taxi rank built adjacent to the existing multi-storey, and the creation of a brand new entrance off Mill Street.

The entrance will be relocated to Mill Street to make way for the tram extension and allow Railway Drive to become more pedestrianised.

The medium-term ambition is to build a new hotel on the land between Railway Drive and the car park which would effectively wrap-around the existing frontage, creating a completely new view and a modern-looking gateway to the new railway station.

“It’s an exciting time as customers can now really start to see the new car park taking shape with the steel work going up,” said Dave Whitehouse, Virgin Trains Interchange Project Manager Wolverhampton.

“We will be working hard to keep customers updated as work progresses and, along with our colleagues at London Midland, play our part in giving the city a station to be proud of.”

Posted by Wolverhampton Interchange

Plans to extend the Midland Metro in Wolverhampton were given the go-ahead today (Tuesday June 21), paving the way for the next stage in a wider £120 million redevelopment of the city centre.

The extension was given formal approval by Secretary of State for Transport, Patrick McLoughlin, and follows a Transport and Works Act Order public inquiry last summer.

The go-ahead means preparatory work on the £18 million extension can start later this year with completion scheduled for 2019.

The route will take trams along Pipers Row, stopping directly outside the bus station before continuing on to the railway station which will also be redeveloped as part of the Wolverhampton Interchange Project.

The Metro scheme is being carried out by Transport for West Midlands (TfWM), the transport arm of the West Midlands Combined Authority (WMCA), in partnership with the City of Wolverhampton Council and Neptune Developments.

Not only will the extension improve passenger connections between bus, train and tram services but also support the ongoing redevelopment of land next to the railway station which is expected to see £120 million of investment and 1,400 new jobs.

Cllr Roger Lawrence, leader of City of Wolverhampton Council and West Midlands lead on transport, said: “Today’s approval is excellent news because the extension can play a key role in unlocking further investment and jobs – not just in Wolverhampton but also other parts of the Black Country.

“If we are to succeed in revitalising our city then we must have the right transport infrastructure in place to open up new areas for redevelopment and underpin our long term ambitions.”

Cllr Lawrence said the extension would provide improved Metro links to the wider West Midlands including a route through to the proposed high speed rail station and the Broad Street area in Birmingham city centre.

Steve Parry, managing director of Neptune Developments, said: “The announcement is great news for the Wolverhampton Interchange scheme as the Midland Metro extension is the element that will tie the commercial developments and the new bus and railway stations together.”

Following a six-week legal challenge period the Transport and Works Act Order will come into force and allow work to start on advanced utility diversions.

This will be followed by works to the Pipers Row car park that in turn will create the space needed to divert the underground pipes and cables buried along the route of the tram extension.

The work is part of the wider Interchange project being funded by the Black Country Local Enterprise Partnership, City of Wolverhampton Council and the WMCA.

Posted by Wolverhampton Interchange

Kaspa’s Desserts will hold its grand opening at Wolverhampton’s city centre showpiece i10 building on Friday, June 24, at noon.

The dessert house chain has taken over two units to house its first Midlands branch.

It will employ more than 25 local people at the multi-million pound office and retail development.

The i10 building, next to the railway station and bus station, was completed in December and forms part of the city’s £120 million Interchange plans.

Superdrug became the first tenant to start trading in February and Greene King opened its new Hungry Horse family-friendly pub restaurant – The Sunbeam – the following month.

The retail units on the ground floor sit under three floors of top grade office space, two of which will be occupied by worldwide expert in water treatment, Ovivo, and award-winning home builder and regeneration specialist, Countryside.

Kaspa’s Desserts offer the world’s favourite hot and cold desserts under one roof – boasting irresistible gelatos, waffles, crepes, milkshakes, smoothies and sundaes.

Bal Dhanjal, Kaspa’s Manager, said: “Our i10 venue is looking the part and we are really excited about opening for business in Wolverhampton.

“The council and partners have provided great support to us in helping recruit staff from the area and we are looking forward to establishing ourselves in the city centre.

“The regeneration plans for Wolverhampton are very exciting and we are delighted to be a part of it.”

City of Wolverhampton Council is close to agreeing a deal over another unit, while the final retail unit will be marketed later this year.

Councillor John Reynolds, Cabinet Member for City Economy, added: “The businesses that have moved into i10 are thriving.

“Kaspa’s is another exciting addition to the development and brings something different to Wolverhampton.

“i10 is now almost fully let and forms what is becoming an impressive gateway into the city centre.

“As well as encouraging more investment, it is also delivering dozens of new jobs for local people.”

Wider Interchange development has seen work start on the extension of the railway station car park. A major new railway station and the Metro extension will follow.

Posted by Wolverhampton Interchange

The building of a new multi-million pound Wolverhampton railway station came a step closer today.

The Interchange partnership has submitted plans to demolish the existing station and replace it with a new one.

Work is due to begin on the new railway station next year following the extension and refurbishment of the railway station multi-storey car park, which is expected to be completed by Christmas 2016.

It forms part of a £120 million Interchange project that will also see a Metro line extension, including a new stop at the station.

The new station will also benefit from an enhanced Birmingham New Street-style ticket office, larger passenger concourse, ample ticket barriers to ease flow onto and off platforms, much improved retail and café facilities, increased taxi rank provision and a more efficient passenger drop off/pick up arrangement.

Councillor Peter Bilson, Deputy Leader and Cabinet Member for City Assets, said: “This is an important step forward in the Interchange project, which is really gathering pace now.

“The people of Wolverhampton can look forward to a railway station befitting of their city.

“There is £3.7 billion of investment currently on site or in the pipeline across Wolverhampton.

“As part of this regeneration it is crucial visitors to our city get the best first impression possible and their travel experience is enhanced – this new state-of-the-art station will deliver that.”

Steve Parry, Managing Director of Neptune Developments, added: “These proposals for the main railway station building illustrate that the city will soon have a new high quality gateway.

“Submitting the plans is a key milestone in this exciting project for Wolverhampton.”

Dave Whitehouse, Virgin Trains Interchange Project Manager Wolverhampton, said: “The images that accompany the plans really bring the new-look station alive.

“There’s a real sense of excitement as we work together to give the city a station to be proud of.”

Posted by Wolverhampton Interchange

Award-winning home builder and regeneration specialist Countryside has become the latest business to sign up as a tenant of i10.

The UK company has agreed a deal to occupy the top floor of the multi-million pound office and retail development to make Wolverhampton a regional headquarters.

i10 provides the only top grade office accommodation in the city and is a key component in Wolverhampton’s £120 million Interchange.

Countryside, which was founded in 1958 and relisted on the London Stock Exchange earlier this year, completed 2,364 homes with revenues of £615.8 million for the year ended 30 September 2015.

They will occupy the top floor – one of three levels of office space.

Ian Kelley, Managing Director of Countryside’s Partnerships North division said: “As a leading home builder specialising in place making and urban regeneration we are delivering significant growth in the sector.

“i10’s strategic location and quality of accommodation were a major draw as we look to expand our Partnerships business into the West Midlands where we see great opportunity for urban regeneration.”

Tim Johnson, City of Wolverhampton Council Strategic Director of Place, added: “It is a big feather in the cap of Wolverhampton to attract such a prominent name as Countryside.

“The i10 development certainly has the wow factor and its location at the gateway to the city for people getting off the national transport network has been a major selling point.

“We can now look forward to seeing the occupiers thrive and hopefully encourage other business to similarly invest in Wolverhampton.”

Ovivo last month signed up as office tenants at i10 and City of Wolverhampton Council is in advanced negotiations with another business for the remaining floor of office space, while Greene King, Superdrug and Kaspa’s Desserts have already filled four of the six retail units on the ground floor.

As well as encouraging more investment and boosting prosperity in the city, i10 forms part of the gateway to the city for people arriving by rail, bus or Metro.

Wider development will include a new state-of-the-art railway station and the Metro line extension, which will include a new stop at the station.

Work has started on the refurbishment and extension of the railway station car park and the new bus station is already in use.

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